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Page Synopsis: Confusing topic but well worth becoming fully acquainted with. Peptigeric therapy can help everyone, not just CFS patients
page 59b PTBICF > COGNITION HEALING from STROKE > ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES > PEPTIDE DESCRIPTION
There are Peptides and there are Nootropics. Some peptides are nootropic and some nootropics are peptides. Peptides and nootropics can be derived from natural or synthetic compounds.
Peptide Therapy https://delawareintegrativemedicine.com/therapies/peptide-therapy
Peptides are small proteins comprised of short chains of amino acids that the body uses as hormones and signaling molecules for biological pathways. Peptides are chains of amino acids. These are linked together in a specific process to produce a protein. There are thousands of peptides in the body and many have different functions. In our bodies, these small proteins typically act as signaling molecules. Peptides bind to receptors on the cell surface and tell other cells and molecules what to do
Classes of Peptides
What are peptides https://www.zealandpharma.com/what-are-peptides
Peptides are naturally occurring biological molecules. Peptides are found in all living organisms and play a key role in all manner of biological activity. Like proteins, peptides are formed (synthesized) naturally from transcription of a sequence of the genetic code, DNA. Transcription is the biological process of copying a specific DNA gene sequence into a messenger molecule, mRNA, which then carries the code for a given peptide or protein. Reading from the mRNA, a chain of amino acids is joined together by peptide bonds to form a single molecule.
There are 20 naturally-occurring amino acids and, like letters into words, they can be combined into an immense variety of different molecules. When a molecule consists of 2-50 amino acids it is called a peptide, whereas a larger chain of > 50 amino acids generally is referred to as a protein.
Peptides are in every cell and tissue in the body
In the human body, peptides are found in every cell and tissue and perform a wide range of essential functions. Maintenance of appropriate concentration and activity levels of peptides is necessary to achieve homeostasis and maintain health.
The function that a peptide carries out is dependent on the types of amino acids involved in the chain and their sequence, as well as the specific shape of the peptide. Peptides often act as hormones and thus constitute biologic messengers carrying information from one tissue through the blood to another. Two common classes of hormones are peptide and steroid hormones. Peptide hormones are produced in glands, and a number of other tissues including the stomach, the intestine and the brain. Examples of peptide hormones are those involved in blood glucose regulation, including insulin, glucagon-like-peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon, and those regulating appetite, including ghrelin.
Peptides primarily creates a biological effect by binding to cell surface receptors
For a peptide to exert its effect, it needs to bind to a receptor specific for that peptide and which is located in the membrane of relevant cells. A receptor penetrates the cell membrane and consists of an extracellular domain where the peptide binds, and an intracellular domain through which the peptide exerts its function upon binding and activation of the receptor. An example is the GLP-1 receptor, which is located on beta cells in the pancreas. Upon activation of the receptor by natural GLP-1 or a peptide analog (a synthesized molecule mimicking the effect of natural GLP-1, such as our lixisenatide), the cell is stimulated through a series of biological events to release insulin
What to know about peptides for health https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/326701
Peptides are smaller versions of proteins. Many health and cosmetic products contain different peptides for many uses, such as their potential anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, or muscle building properties.
Recent research indicates that some types of peptides could have a beneficial role in slowing down the aging process, reducing inflammation, and destroying microbes.
People may confuse peptides with proteins. Both proteins and peptides are made up of amino acids, but peptides contain far fewer amino acids than proteins. Like proteins, peptides are naturally present in foods.
Due to the potential health benefits of peptides, many supplements are available that contain peptides that manufacturers have derived either from food or made synthetically.
Some of the most popular peptides include collagen peptides for anti-aging and skin health, and creatine peptide supplements for building muscle and enhancing athletic performance.
Peptides are short strings of amino acids, typically comprising 2–50 amino acids. Amino acids are also the building blocks of proteins, but proteins contain more.
Peptides may be easier for the body to absorb than proteins because they are smaller and more broken down than proteins. They can more easily penetrate the skin and intestines, which helps them to enter the bloodstream more quickly.
The peptides in supplements may come from plant or animal sources of protein, including:
Scientists are most interested in bioactive peptides, or those that have a beneficial effect on the body and may positively impact human health.
Different bioactive peptides have different properties. The effects they have on the body depend on the sequence of amino acids they contain.
Some of the most common peptide supplements available are:
Collagen peptides, which may benefit skin health and reverse the effects of aging.
Creatine peptides, which may build strength and muscle mass.
Some people may take other peptides and peptide hormones to enhance athletic activity. However, the World Anti-Doping Agency have banned many of these, including follistatin, a peptide that increases muscle growth.
Uses and benefits
Possible benefits of peptides include reducing inflammation, improving immune function, and preventing the formation of blood clots.
Research indicates that bioactive peptides may:
People often use peptides to try to achieve the following effects:
Slow down the aging process
Collagen is a protein in the skin, hair, and nails. Collagen peptides are broken down collagen proteins that the body can absorb more easily. Taking collagen peptides may improve skin health and slow the aging process.
Some studies indicate that dietary food supplements that contain collagen peptides can treat skin wrinkles. Other research indicates that these supplements may also improve skin elasticity and hydration.
Peptides may stimulate the production of melanin, a skin pigment, which may improve the skin’s protection against sun damage.
Topical anti-aging cosmetics can also contain peptides, which manufacturers claim can reduce wrinkles, help skin firming, and increase blood flow.
Improve wound healing
As collagen is a vital component of healthy skin, collagen peptides may facilitate faster wound healing.
Bioactive peptides can also reduce inflammation and act as antioxidants, which can improve the body’s ability to heal.
Research is currently ongoing into antimicrobial peptides, which may also improve wound healing. Having very high or very low levels of some antimicrobial peptides may contribute to skin disorders, such as psoriasis, rosacea, and eczema.
Prevent age-related bone loss
Animal research links a moderate intake of collagen peptides with an increase in bone mass in growing rats who also did running exercise.
The study may point to collagen peptides being a useful way to counteract age-related bone loss. However, more research is necessary, especially on humans.
Build strength and muscle mass
Some research on older adults indicates that collagen peptide supplements can increase muscle mass and strength. In the study, participants combined supplement use with resistance training.
Creatine peptides may also improve strength and help to build muscle.
While fitness enthusiasts have been using creatine protein powders for many years, creatine peptides are increasing in popularity.
These particular peptides may be easier for the body to digest, which means they may cause fewer digestive problems than creatine proteins
LYSINE PROLINE VALINE POLYPEPTIDE https://forums.phoenixrising.me/threads/lysine-proline-valine-polypeptide.83590
Both peptides and proteins are made up of strings of the body's basic building blocks, amino acids, and are held together by peptide bonds.
In simple terms, the difference between BCAAs and peptides is that peptides are generally made up of smaller chains of amino acids, and contain two or more amino acids
Peptides are short chains of amino acids linked by peptide bonds. Chains of fewer than twenty amino acids are called oligopeptides, and include dipeptides, tripeptides, and tetrapeptides.
A polypeptide is a longer, continuous, unbranched peptide chain. Hence, peptides fall under the broad chemical classes of biological polymers and oligomers, alongside nucleic acids, oligosaccharides, polysaccharides, and others.
A polypeptide that contains more than approximately fifty amino acids is known as a protein. Proteins consist of one or more polypeptides arranged in a biologically functional way, often bound to ligands such as coenzymes and cofactors, or to another protein or other macromolecule such as DNA or RNA, or to complex macromolecular assemblies.
Amino acids that have been incorporated into peptides are termed residues
Many kinds of peptides are known. They have been classified or categorized according to their sources and functions. According to the Handbook of Biologically Active Peptides, some groups of peptides include plant peptides, bacterial/antibiotic peptides, fungal peptides, invertebrate peptides, amphibian/skin peptides, venom peptides, cancer/anticancer peptides, vaccine peptides, immune/inflammatory peptides, brain peptides, endocrine peptides, ingestive peptides, gastrointestinal peptides, cardiovascular peptides, renal peptides, respiratory peptides, opiate peptides, neurotrophic peptides, and blood–brain peptides.
Some ribosomal peptides are subject to proteolysis. These function, typically in higher organisms, as hormones and signaling molecules. Some organisms produce peptides as antibiotics, such as microcins and bacteriocins.
Peptides frequently have post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, hydroxylation, sulfonation, palmitoylation, glycosylation, and disulfide formation. In general, peptides are linear, although lariat structures have been observed. More exotic manipulations do occur, such as racemization of L-amino acids to D-amino acids in platypus venom.
Nonribosomal peptides are assembled by enzymes, not the ribosome. A common non-ribosomal peptide is glutathione, a component of the antioxidant defenses of most aerobic organisms. Other nonribosomal peptides are most common in unicellular organisms, plants, and fungi and are synthesized by modular enzyme complexes called nonribosomal peptide synthetases.
These complexes are often laid out in a similar fashion, and they can contain many different modules to perform a diverse set of chemical manipulations on the developing product. These peptides are often cyclic and can have highly complex cyclic structures, although linear nonribosomal peptides are also common. Since the system is closely related to the machinery for building fatty acids and polyketides, hybrid compounds are often found. The presence of oxazoles or thiazoles often indicates that the compound was synthesized in this fashion
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page 59b PTBICF > COGNITION HEALING from STROKE > ALTERNATIVE THERAPIES > PEPTIDE DESCRIPTION
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