Page Synopsis: The more I look into it, the less excited I am about this therapy. Only a small portion of blood is cleared, and therapy results from the reaction to that

Skill Level  3

Relevance:2 Technical Level:2


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Perhaps a means to address HHV6 and latent infections. I would rather try and be pleasantly surprised than to have too much expectation


It seems to me that it would work best if, like dialysis all the blood is cycled through and the UV tuned only to destroy pathogens (perhaps by modulating the frequency). However that is not the case, a small portion is removed and irradiated, destroying the DNA of pathogen and host cells alike and upon reintroduction there is an effect that takes place, or in another option a UV emitting catheter is inserted allowing for higher volume of exposure, but endothelial intramuscularly, and again though tuned to a particular wavelength, it is s set length that harms all it contacts with, what I don't like is that there are no current studies and that the varying clinics use the same text in advertising their product which is always suspicious. Nevermind that there are lawsuits and claims by the FDA against the outfits that have done studies or promised and swindled too much, so while I'm not saying it can't work, it seems a bit shady and opportunistic


On the other hand, Extracorporeal Apheresis sounds promising



This is super controversial and will return to the subject later, until then it's worth trying but it's getting backlogged


UBI Irradiating Blood For Infections

"The history of Ultraviolet treatments, or Photoluminescence Therapy, reaches back at least as far as the clinical use of medical ozone. The treatment is similar to major autohemo-therapy; blood is taken from one arm, it is exposed to ultraviolet radiation, then led back through the other arm. The two treatment modalities are close relatives; there are many similarities between them.


However, there is one major difference: U.B.I. has been approved by the FDA, and medical doctors in the USA are free to use it. This fact in itself brings up some very disturbing questions. As you will see in this report, U.B.I., an entirely harmless, benign, and painless procedure, has already been proven very effective decades ago in reversing and completely eliminating viral infections that today are regarded as irreversible, and are treated with dangerous and expensive drugs.


Being informed about this treatment may one day save your life, so let us take a closer look at U.B.I.


Despite the fact that this modality is very little known in North America, it is not one of those obscure experimental methods that are practiced in the basements of some private clinics. Quite the opposite! U.B.I. has been used in mainstream medical practice in the United States from as far back as 1935. In Europe, particularly in the former Soviet Union, millions of patients were treated successfully with blood irradiation. One of the reasons for the interest in this therapy in the USSR was that it is a very inexpensive, yet effective procedure. Why didn't it become a major tool against viral diseases in the hands of US medical doctors?


In 1998 we have received a report from an M.D. in Ohio, who has just finished a large clinical study with 32 Hepatitis C patients. He reversed all of them with ultraviolet treatments, completely eliminating the infection. This was very similar to reports from naturopathic physicians in British Columbia, Canada, who are regularly achieving such results with medical ozone.


The U.B.I. equipment is being distributed in the USA by a firm called Foundation for Blood Irradiation, Inc. Its owner and medical director is Dr. Carl Schleicher. They offer training seminars to interested doctors. The followings are excerpts from their literature.


U.B.I. Therapy is intravenously applied ultraviolet energy.


This produces effects of a profound nature in human beings with photochemical, biochemical & physiological aspects.


These effects have proven to be of great value clinically in a wide variety of disease processes.


No harmful effects have been observed over a period of more than 25 years, during which UBI has been given more than 500.000 times to over 30.000 patients by at least 100 physicians.


Effects of UBI:


  • A rapid detoxifying effect.
  • An increase in venous oxygen in patients with depressed blood oxygen values.
  • A marked anti-inflammatory effect in diseases where severe damaging inflammatory processes exist.
  • A powerful regulatory or normalizing effect on the autonomic nervous system.
  • A rapid rise of resistance to acute or chronic viral or bacterial infections.
  • UBI has excellent effects in:
  • Viral infections (Hepatitis -- serum, infectious, acute, chronic, Mumps, Measles, Mononucleosis, Herpes, etc.)
  • Bacterial infections (Septicemias, staphylococcus, pneumococcus, streptococcus, coli, salmonella, pneumonias, etc.)
  • Profound overwhelming toxemias
  • Severe damaging inflammatory processes
  • Non-healing wounds, ETC.


Treatment requires from fifteen to twenty minutes. Outpatients rest fifteen minutes, after which time they resume their normal activities. The quantity of blood withdrawn is small, and the procedure doesn't cause either pain or discomfort.




In a letter written to us in 1998, Dr. Schleicher remarks: "We haven't yet seen an infectious disease we could not treat."


Here is the introduction to the 1997 Edition of a book written about UBI:


Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation: A History and Guide to Clinical Application


The publication of this book has been years in the making, with many hours of fine detective work spent in finding some of the missing chapters long considered lost. The Foundation for Blood Irradiation (FFBI), its well-wishers, supporters and staff view this accomplishment as a coming of age and renaissance for Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation (UBI). Those who participated in this effort can be justifiably pleased.


The writing of this manual began in the 1930's with the pioneers of this technique, specifically, Olney, Miley, Knott and Lewis. They treated thousands of patients with a broad spectrum of disease complaints, and closely observed these patients, often over a period of years. Because of their dedication and vision, we now have concrete documentation on the efficacy and safety of UBI. Their efforts have filled the pages of this manual and make a profound argument for UBI to become one of the more effective treatment methods of our time.


Writing was completed in 1997 with the addition of Chapter 23, which documents recent research into the treatment of HIV/AIDS using UBI. This Chapter replaces the original Chapter 23, which dealt with diseases of connective tissue, and regrettably was lost over the many years since work began on this project.


UBI was originally created through the research of E.K. Knott to fight the ravages of poliomyelitis in the 1930's, which it did with considerable success. However with the advent of antibiotics and the Salk vaccine this method of treatment fell into disuse during the 1950's and 1960's, and was for a long period of time overlooked by most physicians. Those who had not been totally seduced by the use of antibiotics continued to apply UBI and were soon rewarded with the knowledge that UBI could successfully treat many other ailments than polio, as well as those diseases not responding to antibiotic treatment. As news of this discovery spread, UBI found a renaissance in the 1980's and has been re\- introduced by FFBI in the 90's, with an improved, state-of-the-art device.


The Foundation for Blood Irradiation (FFBI), an organization founded in New York in 1947 by Louis Ripley, John Winters, Dr. H.T. Lewis and others, moved to Maryland in 1979 and continues in operation today under the direction of Dr. Carl Schleicher. Recently FFBI has obtained research reports of the use of UBI in the treatment of HIV/AIDS; projects are currently in process for treating immune system disorders, Alzheimer's Disease and Gulf War Syndrome. While no claims can be made for UBI's efficacy in treating these illnesses, funds are being sought for research.


Since this method uses no drugs and lowers the cost of medical treatment, it can be expected that there will be resistance from those who feel that their interests are threatened by this device. A similar situation occurred in the 1950's and 60's when computers replaced many persons doing clerical keyboard operation. Now we can see that computers have actually created more jobs at higher rates of pay than the near minimum wage of keypunch operators. It is expected that the same could happen here with the advent of energy medicine and the use of alternative, non-drug approaches to the treatment of disease. It should be understood that most drugs have side-effects and risks. UBI has no known side-effects or risk.


This manual is dedicated to the pioneers of UBI and to their untiring search for more effective, safer, and lower-cost methods for healing the diseases that face humanity, using one of nature's own tools: ultraviolet light.


This book is largely a collection of the documented case work of Miley, Olney, Lewis and others as performed with the UBI device or Knott Hemoirradiator, applied to a variety of diseases afflicting their patients. This treatment continues to be effective today although it has not changed in application for 50 years. There have been no known negative side effects, and it continues to be a safe, painless and easy-to-apply process.


In his book Into the Light, William Campbell Douglass, M.D. (a pioneer in the new era of UV energy medicine), states that Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation is the life-saving breakthrough therapy of the age. The secondary title of Dr. Douglass' book is Tomorrow's Medicine Today; we concur, and hopefully this manual can serve as a guide to continue this breakthrough well into the next century.


If you are interested in this treatment modality, please call the office of Dr. Schleicher. They will be able to give you the address of a clinic or doctor nearest to you, where you can obtain the treatment.


Is UBI an 'alternative' treatment? It is neither unapproved, nor actively suppressed. A medical doctor is free to practice it. However, it is very little known, and almost never used against infectious diseases, except by a handful of practitioners. If an excellent medical modality becomes neglected and forgotten by the medical community, does that place it in the category of alternative medicine? Hardly. Maybe we should create a new category: neglected medicine, or not sufficiently profitable medicine.


So, if you have an infectious disease, and you are not satisfied with the answers you get from your doctor, it may help to talk to other doctors. Don't let one person's ignorance prevent you from recovering your health."

Use of Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation Against Viral Infections


This is used as a therapy for immune-modulation and as a parameter for normalizing the blood parameters. The resistance of microorganisms in the blood to UV irradiation is not fully understood. A low and mild dose of UV is effective in killing microorganisms by inhibiting their DNA synthesis. The important observation is that any type of DNA damage in the host cells is repaired by the DNA repair enzymes. But, it is understood that the action of UBI to manage septicemia is not due to UV-induced killing of bacteria in the blood only. An approximately 5–7% of blood is necessary for the treatment with UV to have the optimum benefit. UBI enhances the phagocytic ability of numerous neutrophils and dendritic cells, inhibits lymphocytes, and oxidizes the blood lipids [19]. Thus, the oxidative power of UBI has mechanisms in common with other therapies such as ozone therapy or oxygen therapy. Similarities between ECP with psoralens and UBI also exist [19]. But, significant differences between UBI and ECP are found in their mode of action. For example, UBI stimulates the immune system, while the ECP process is immunosuppressive. The UBI method should be investigated in detail as a separate method to treat infections and immunity-related medical disorders [19].


The first human treatment using UBI was performed in 1928. Due to this process, the case of hemolytic streptococcus septicemia was successfully treated [20]. A similar success was observed in a patient who had advanced hemolytic streptococcal septicemia [21]. UBI was then investigated for pneumonia patients. It was crucial to see that all the 75 patients of the trial responded well to UBI. The time of hospital stay was decreased, and the acceleration of convalescence was observed [22].


It is important to state the specific UBI technique developed by Knott. This process involved removing approximately 3.5 mL/kg of venous blood, citrating it as an anticoagulant, and then passing it through a radiation chamber. The exposure time per unit of blood was selected at 10 s. The wavelength of light was set at 253.7 nm. The UVC was obtained by a quartz burner of mercury. The blood was re-perfused as quickly as possible [20]. This method was applied to many diseases including thrombophlebitis, staphylococcal septicemia, peritonitis, botulism, poliomyelitis, non-healing wounds, and asthma as shown in [21–35]. Twenty-nine other different medical disorders were also treated successfully, including infectious arthritis, septic abortion, osteoarthritis, tuberculosis glands, chronic blepharitis, mastoiditis, uveitis, furunculosis, chronic paranasal sinusitis, acne vulgaris, and secondary anemia [36, 37]. UB was also applied to Escherichia coli septicemia, post-abortion sepsis, puerperal sepsis, peritonitis, and typhoid fever [38–42]. Efficacy for biliary disease, pelvic cellulitis, and viral hepatitis was also demonstrated [43–45].


The mechanisms of how UBI works against infections and modulates the immune system are discussed in [19]. Although known for the past 90 years, the detailed description of the mechanisms of action UBI is not available yet. Therefore, there has been always confusion in the use of this radiation for medical purposes. As stated before, UV demonstrated effects in the sterilization of water and surgical instruments. On this basis, it was believed that the use of UV against infection also depended on the direct destruction of the pathogens. Confusion also exists since UBI was used to treat a wide diversity of diseases.


The UBI is capable of altering many properties of blood as well as leukocytes as demonstrated by in vitro results. For example, the UVI increases the percentage of stimulating cells in leukocytes and controls mitogen-induced media. Importantly, the UVI can reverse the production of cytokine and block its release. It also disturbs cell membrane stabilization. The UBI has numerous effects on red blood cells. Anaerobic situations can inhibit the process because UV light can induce the removal of potassium ion from the cells. Kabat et al. [46] had proved that UV radiation can alter the osmotic characteristics of red blood cells, their submicroscopic structures, and the breakdown of specific nucleotides. Different irradiation periods ranging from 1 to 5 h were chosen to investigate these roles. This study showed that a decreased value of ATP increases the values of other nucleotides. The UV radiation also increased the hypotonic sodium and potassium cation values and the ratio of the red blood cells [46].


Irradiation of Rh-positive blood with UV light increases the immune adsorption activity. To identify the immune absorption activity, a varying degree of UV irradiation was applied to the cells of red blood and leukocyte-thrombocyte [47]. Immunoabsorption activity was increased spontaneously when irradiation was conducted in these systems. But, this was not a permanent effect since this property was decreased in the leucocyte system after 2 days.


Poly-dextran was used to determine the decreased level of erythrocytes of the cell surfaces during UV irradiation. This helped transfused erythrocytes for better survival [48]. To identify the superior effect of auto-transfused blood after the exposure of UV irradiation, modifications of the structures of the erythrocytes was helpful [49]. They demonstrated that UV irradiation can change the volume of the cell and the potential of the cell membrane of erythrocytes. However, a high dose of UV can decrease the production of hydrogen peroxide [50].


UBI has effects on neutrophils. It has been found that a small dose of UV (0.1 J/cm2) enhances the concentration of hydrogen peroxide by the biggest polymorphonuclear leukocytes. The function of UBI through the assistance of neutrophils to accelerate the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) can be stopped using numerous molecules including arachidonic acid, lysophosphatidylcholine, and α-tocopherol [51]. The high amount of IC-IgG and IgM or low IC-IgM demonstrated an opposite property in inflammatory diseases when an increased UBI was given to auto-transfusion blood [52].


Due to the iNOS enzyme triggering, the production of nitric oxide (NO) by neutrophils was realized [53]. A fresh synthesis of NO is possible of UV irradiation, and this method generates TNF-alpha. UV irradiation with a small dose of 75.5 J/m2 maintained the physiological homeostasis. A high dose of 755 to 2265 J/m2 given to neutrophils caused damage by enhancing the amount of the breakdown product of NO. Cycloheximide because of its protein inhibition properties can stop the activation of iNOS and NO in the presence of UV irradiation. A direct relationship exists between NO and TNF-alpha concentration, and this can be found from experiments on a high dose of UV-irradiation (755 J/m2) against neutrophils [53].


An experiment on UV for 30 days was performed in rabbits [54]. It was seen that the generated chronic stress is due to a combination of hydrodynamic and UBI affecting neutrophils and eliminating coagulation. UBI helped to improve the body’s performance against hydrodynamic and unpredictable stress. UBI helped to enhance the organization and process structure in the activation of neutrophils stopped the coagulation of blood and changed the atherogenic condition [54].


UBI has effects on lymphocytes, T-cells, and B-cells. UBI generally helps to decrease lymphocyte viability. The UVC irradiation is believed to be the most efficient among three UV spectral ranges. The cell budding activity can be stopped by the UVB and UBC radiation. These radiations can also minimize antigen-producing ability of the component of the cells. Numerous properties including cell-surface interaction, calcium mobilization method, cytokine production/release, and a few sub-cellular processes can be modified by UV irradiation [55].


The “Comet assay” was used to identify DNA-strand breakage because of single-cell gel electrophoresis. This was an evidence of DNA repair, indicating that lymphocytes were highly fragile to this UVB irradiation. The effects of UVB radiation on this observation indicated the possibility that UVB may contribute to immune-suppression via a significant effect on extracapillary T-lymphocytes [56].


Interestingly, either the Th1 or Th2 or the CD4 or CD8 T-cells can be affected by the UVB irradiation. The photoirradiation is not seen. However, a significant number of T-cells are killed within 48 to 72 h with a low dose of UVB irradiation (LD50 0.5–1 mJ/cm2) [57]. A compatible dose-dependent reduction of cytokinesis noted after 3 days of irradiation. This is because of a direct relationship between the loss of viability and the production of cytokine. Interestingly, the pattern and ratio of CD4 and CD8 are not altered compared to the non-radiated control group. This suggests that the T-cell subsets were not selectively affected.


The UV irradiation is capable of inducing phosphorylation of tyrosine in B cells through a cross-attachment with the immunoglobulin of the surface. This observation is, in fact, similar to the production of calcium ion in T cells. On this basis, it indicates that UV irradiation of lymphocytes activates phosphorylation of tyrosine and calcium ion signals. Therefore, the calcium ion channels in the membrane of the lymphocytes are affected due to UV irradiation. This irradiation destroys DNA by activating cellular signal-transduction pathways. On the other hand, based upon the dose, the UV irradiation activates phosphorylation of tyrosine in lymphocytes and controls calcium ion signal in Jurkat T cells. Moreover, the picture immunoglobulin of the surface remains identical to the UV-promoted tyrosine phosphorylation in B cells. It is shown that CD + and CD8 + T cells can react during UV irradiation [58].


Following a similar study, Spielberg et al. [59] showed that UV-induced lymphocyte inhibition indicated an alteration of calcium ion homeostasis when comparing UV with gamma irradiation. Gamma radiation has different properties on lymphocyte membranes [59]. Besides, the presence of calcium channels in the membrane of lymphocyte can be found by the indo-1 staining and cytofluorometry technique. Intracellular calcium ion [Ca2+]i kinetics was estimated in human peripheral blood leukocytes during UVC or UB irradiation. Jurkat cells were used as a standard in this functional assay. The UV-induced concentration increase of [Ca2+]i was mainly possible because of incoming of extracellular calcium. The T-cells were more affected than non-T-cells due to this process. The concentration of [Ca2+]i was increased within 2 to 3 h of irradiation. A dose-dependent behavior was observed in this experiment, and a maximum point was reached for both UVB and UVC. UV induced a significant [Ca2+]i growth in T-cells than in non-T cells, and this increase is because of the activity of the extracellular calcium. The intensity of UV irradiation on the plasma membrane decreased its sensitivity to react with certain lectins (phytohemagglutinin) in the cultures of mixed leukocytes.


Several studies indicated that lymphocytes irradiated by UVR were unable to create genetically different cells in lymphocyte culture [60–62]. For lymphocyte activation, clusters obtained after allogeneic or mitogenic method with dendritic cells were necessary. UV irradiation of dendritic cells was able to prevent the creation of clusters and inhibit lymphocyte production [63].


It was found that the induction of the DNA repair process required UVC of 2 and 16 J/cm2 [64]. An evaluation was performed with lymphocytes that were irradiated or without any irradiation among 51 people. Repair synthesis by UVC irradiation at various doses was measured by evaluating [3H] thymidine along with hydroxyurea. The results became identical irrespective of the age of the donors.


UV was able to create differentiation in lymphocytes and activates DNA repairing process [65]. A subjection to UV irradiation had superior effects than methyl methanesulfonate (MMS) concerning the synthesis of unscheduled DNA. This method became efficient when MMS was given before UV irradiation. It was believed that MMS caused DNA repair through the alkylation of polymerase [66]. Light-induced modification of HLA-D/DR antigens was involved in the increased function of immune component cells. Photo-altered lymphocytes were obtained from a variety of origins including irradiated and non-irradiated blood [67].


Before transfusion, the UBI is capable of inhibiting the immune system and stopping organ rejection in an animal model. A specific amount of total body irradiation and donor marrow cells in the presence of blood was used for this experiment. This in vivo test was conducted in dogs. The control group of animals that was permeated with blood failed to accept the bone marrow grafts. But, acceptance was seen in the group that was given UV-mediated blood before the transplantation. UV irradiation on blood prevented the activation of lymphocyte by eliminating a crucial DC-dependent signal [68].


Transfusion of UV-irradiated blood to patients before heart transplantation can be performed provided there is a deficiency in immune response, and to minimize lymphocyte-mediated rejection [69]. Different rat species (ACI, Lewis, and W/F) were studied to execute heart transfer. The ACI rats received Lewis’s heart, and it was transfused with donor type of blood in the presence or absence of UV irradiation at different weeks period. The occurrence of a lymphocyte reaction indicated that the ACI group was weaker compared to Lewis counterpart. A consistent result was observed in the other two groups. Also, children who have rhesus-conflict hemolytic disorder respond positively to the presence of UV irradiation [70].


The UBI has effects on the members of the mononuclear phagocyte system. Four varieties of deoxyribonucleosides are used to improve the phagocytic activity of UVB-irradiated mononuclear cells [71].


Activation of phagocytic (PhA) functions is a crucial pathway in immunocorrection by UV irradiation of blood treatment. A mixture of irradiated and non-irradiated blood was examined for PhA functions [72]. This study indicated an increase of 1.4–1.7 times of PhA. This suggests that monocytes and granulocytes can be improved by mixing UV-irradiated blood to people. The increased phagocytic functions are dependent on the initial amount and may change simultaneously due to structural alterations of the components present in the cell surface [72].


UV irradiation can increase the phagocytic power of human monocytes and granulocytes. The “integrated phagocytic index” increases based upon the proportion of the irradiation dose. A lower starting level may increase subsequently accumulating UV irradiation [73].


The UVB can change Langerhans cell (LC) or splenic adherent cells from immunogenic morphology to a tolerogenic morphology. This is possible when the antigen-presenting cells were LC or SAC [74]. Irradiation of 200 J/cm2 was given to LC and AC. Consequently, non-responsiveness was noted when UV-LC or UV-SAC are mixed with Th1 cells. It should be noted that the loss of responsiveness was not because of the generation of soluble suppressor factors. This was long-lasting, Ag-specific, and MHC-restricted. This finding was explained due to the failure of a costimulatory signal which was possible by UVB irradiation. This explanation was supported because UVB-LC or UVB-SAC did not help unresponsiveness.


UBI has effects on platelets. Low UV doses are associated with low hydrogen peroxide production in platelets. The hydrogen peroxide production increases as the dose increase above 0.4 J/cm2. Pamphilon et al. [75] demonstrated that platelet concentrates (PC) become non-immunogenic following UVR and 5 days of storage in sterilized cell containers. The concentration of lactate, β-thromboglobulin, and platelet factor increase after UV. But, the glucose level becomes lower with a 3000 J/m2 irradiation dose of 310 nm mean wavelength [75]. UVB irradiation of PC decreases the CD14 and increases the loss of monocytes. This observation may be due to an inhibition process that up-regulates ICAM-1 and HLA-DR [76]. But, UV irradiation of PC reduced the immunological response in a cell suspension [77–79].


UBI has effects on low-density lipoprotein (LDL) and lipids. The UV irradiation is relevant to lipid peroxidation of blood cells [80]. This occurred at the membrane of the cells. UV irradiation of blood can activate arachidonic acid to get metabolized by cyclooxygenase. This process can initiate the lipid autoperoxidation towards free radicals and the photolysis of the photooxidants. The lipid photoperoxidation method produces lipid hydroperoxides.


UV-irradiated lipid emulsion increases ROS by monocytes. This process creates greatly atherogenic oxidized LDL in the blood. Rabbits were injected with a UV light-oxidized parenteral lipid emulsion, lipofundin. Then, blood samples were taken with EDTA after a specific time of the lipofundin treatment. The UV-oxidized lipofundin showed reduced chemiluminescence from monocytes relative to a Fe3+-oxidized lipofundin. But, the effect of lipofundin treated with UV light lasted 2.3 times longer. UV-oxidized lipofundin can effectively activate H2O2 production than monocyte-oxidized LDL under identical conditions. The lipid peroxide amount was increased after the injection of oxidized lipofundin. In contrast, such a difference was not observed in monocyte-oxidized human LDL [81].


Salmon et al. [82] observed that UVB 280 to 315 nm wavelength irradiation can damage the LDL and the tryptophan (Trp) in high-density lipoprotein (HDL). The TBARS method was used to identify the photooxidation of tryptophan which is associated with the peroxidation of low-density and high-density lipoprotein unsaturated fatty acids. UVB is also able to destroy vitamin E and carotenoids. But, UVA radiation is unable to destroy tryptophan.


The lipoproteins contained in the suction blister fluid of healthy humans were oxidized by UV radiation of 290 to 385 nm wavelength. This experiment well simulates the interstitial fluid feeding of the epidermal cells. It was found that apolipoprotein B of LDL and apolipoprotein A-I and II of HDL undergone modifications underneath UV irradiation. Similar irradiation with wavelengths 290 to 385 nm modified the Trp (tryptophan) residue of serum albumin required to photo-oxidation. UVA irradiation of undiluted suction blister fluid produced A-I aggregation. The lipoproteins were not broken. UV irradiation of suction blister fluid was able to make a fragment of antigenic apolipoprotein B, and then, it was polymerized. Reactive oxygen radicals in the suction blister fluid resulted from the lipid peroxidation occurred in the HDL. UV light irradiation may be relevant to produce inflammation and degeneration by inducing photo-oxidation of lipoprotein. This may lead to systemic effects [83].


The redox status of this system is important. It is discovered that, depending on the dose, the UV irradiation can stimulate the myeloperoxidase (MPO) and the NADPH-oxidase enzymes in donor blood [84]. Two doses of UV light chosen were75.5 and 151.0 J/m2. The higher dose triggered much more free radicals and H2O2. Two groups were divided based on MPO function and UV light dose. In group 1, the low enzyme activity increased following UV exposure at 75.5 and 151.0 J/m2. In group 2, the MPO activity conversely decreased. Increasing the dose, the activity of MPO did not increase. Lipid peroxidation (LPO) was also evaluated after UV exposure of the blood. Two groups were separated based on the blood content of LPO products and the dose of UV exposure. UV irradiation at low concentration (75.5–151.0 J/m2) decreased initially the high LPO values but increased initially low LPO values. In phagocytes, NADPH-oxidase works as a photo-acceptor for UV light. Irradiation produces augmented superoxide production and decreased intracellular pH activating an enzyme complex. UBI may prevent damage by free radicals by improving the activity of numerous antioxidants. After spinal cord injury in rabbits, 186 rabbits were divided into control, blood transfusion, injured, and UV treatment groups. UV irradiation of wavelength 253.7 nm and dose 5.68 mW/m2 was used for the treatment group over 48 to 72 h following surgery for spinal cord injury. Measurements were taken of free radical signals (FR) as well as enzymatic activity of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX). It has been found that superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase became higher in the treatment group. But, the FR and MDA of this group decreased compared to the other subdivisions. This suggests that UBI decreased the content of MDA and FR in the spinal cord tissue. These two factors also responsible for higher SOD activity and increased GSH-PX [85].


The mechanisms of UBI have always created confusion for the general public and medical professionals. It is because germicidal UV light (UVC) is employed to maintain the sanity of many items. It is used to sterilize water, or disinfect surfaces, to control infection [19]. Therefore, many believe that the UBI acts by killing the pathogens, bacteria, viruses, or other microorganisms that may be present in the body. But, no evidence supports this belief. Therefore, the mechanisms of action of UBI must be found through some other actions UV has on the various components of blood. Of course, the mechanisms of action of UBI are many and complex. After having proposed some of the ways UBI affects the various components of the blood, we attempt to draw a few general conclusions. First, UBI exemplifies “hormesis” or “biphasic dose-response” techniques. This phenomenon is well-reviewed [86, 87]. In principle, any toxic chemical substance, any toxic drug, or any other attack, such as ionizing radiation, hyperthermia, or oxidative stress, may become beneficial, protective, and therapeutic, if the dose is low enough. If the dose is high, the benefits or effects may disappear. This is established in the Knott’s original experiments on dogs where only 5 to 7% of the total blood volume was the optimal amount irradiated.


UBI may have three different types of effects on different types of blood. In the case of neutrophils, monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells, UBI activates phagocytosis, increases the secretion of NO and reactive nitrogen species, and converts the DC phenotype from immunogenic to tolerogenic. Perhaps this reduces the effects of a cytokine storm. In the case of lymphocytes, the actions of UBI is to inhibit/kill various types of lymphocytes. This is established because the cell-death pathways and the apoptotic signaling are found in lymphocytes. The killing of the lymphocytes can also reduce inflammation. UBI can also oxidize blood lipids and lipoproteins. This increases oxidative stress. A short burst of oxidative stress may be beneficial. A continued chronic level of oxidative stress is detrimental. Many antioxidant defenses become up-regulated after brief exposure to oxidative stress. This is one of the fundamental mechanisms responsible for many aspects of hormesis. The oxidative function of UBI has similarities with ozone therapy and oxygen therapy


UBI has potentially much more rewarding uses, competing with both antivirals and vaccines. However, it suffers from the lack of recent developments, and need specific trials to understand if it maybe works. UBI was used first in 1928. It has been used extensively especially during the 1940s and 1950s. In these two decades, it has been employed as a treatment option for many different diseases including tuberculosis, asthma, pneumonia or septicemia, arthritis, or poliomyelitis [88]. With the success of antibiotics, the use of UBI declined to be almost completely forgotten. The best way of action against SARS-CoV-2 must be completely discovered.


UBI increases venous oxygen in the case of depressed blood oxygen values. It improves resistance to acute and chronic viral and bacterial infections. It has rapid detoxifying and anti-inflammatory effects. It has a regulatory effect on the autonomic nervous system. It inactivates viruses while preserving the opportunity to use their fragments as antigens. The photoluminescence therapy in general is an immune system response modulator affecting the antigenic structure in blood cells. Recently, UBI has shown promises for blood cancer treatment (for example, T cell lymphomas [89–92], leukemia [93]), viral infections (for example, hepatitis C [94, 95]), or bacterial infections (for example, tuberculosis [96–99]).


In the latest tests [94, 95], UBI also revealed significant hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral load reduction and improved liver function in a large percentage of the patients in the small trial. Five treatments were administered to a small trial of only 10 patients for 3 weeks [95]. A modified Knott Hemo-Irradiator was used. After treatments in 9 of the patients, the mean viral load reduction was − 56.0% and the mean change in log viral load was − 0.60. Seven of 10 patients demonstrated a > 0.49 log reduction in viral load. No significant adverse event was reported. Two patients who also had psoriasis improved for this other pathology.


UBI recently also showed efficacy in a 2006 animal study still unpublished but mentioned also in [94] on influenza and simian immunodeficiency viral infection. The treatment of influenza-infected animals produced improvement in both the viral load and the pulmonary function. After a high infectious dose of 5000 TCID50, only mild symptoms were observed in the treated group after day 9, while severe symptoms were developed in the untreated group after day 6, unresolved after the 13 days of the study length. Treated infected animals exhibited a better ability to breath than the untreated animals.


A novel UBI device—the Knott Hemo Irradiator, designed in 1928—should be certainly developed and studied for the treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infections for which there are few treatment options. Specific trials should be carried out starting from animal models to verify safety and efficacy. The size of the trials should be large enough to be statistically significant, and it should be double-blind, placebo, fully controlled trials. The mechanisms of action must be better studied, as they are presently still supposed more than proven. Definitively, the cure that time forgot may return helpful with novel pathologies, novel viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2, or antibiotic-resistant bacteria. This is a fascinating opportunity for which we may only advocate more fundamental studies on the direct and indirect influence of UV light on the many aspects of blood and specifically to SARS-CoV-2 the ability to build antibodies.


We have reviewed a highly intriguing area of research, which is also a call for action in a time when an old method of treatment of patients with sepsis may have greater importance in the face of new challenges such as SARS-CoV-2. The Knott blood irradiation was used with amazing clinical successes in the 1930s to the 1950s but fell out of favor as antibiotic therapy became increasingly available. Given the current state of antibacterial and antiviral therapies, however, it may indeed be time to re-visit these issues and to do so with the modern tools available to the scientific community to elucidate the mechanism of action and utility in treating septic patients.


We must mention the existence of blood photochemical treatment systems that are commercially available today and are used to prevent transfusion transmission of diseases. These include the Intercept system which employs psoralen and UV light, the Mirasol system which employs riboflavin and UV light, and the Theraflex system which employs UVC light alone. These systems and the findings from work which have been conducted in the past 20 years may be relevant to the reviewed topic and possibly even serve as launching points for the initiation of renewed research efforts in this field.


At present, there is no experience reported in the literature about specific uses of UBI for SARS-CoV-1, MERS, and SARS-CoV-2 viral infections. A search in for “Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation” does not return any result. However, a search for “Extracorporeal Photopheresis” still returns 69 results. The major reason for this is the skepticism by mainstream media towards “the cure that time forgot” UBI, which has been only used in recent times by the alternative medicine community, and the unawareness of the ECP development, that, opposite, is still used by the orthodox medical community with further improvements still being sought. While there is no reason to propose mass use of UBI or ECP-based protocols against SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is certainly warranted to perform further basic studies about UBI and ECP mechanisms, and then conduct trials for specific applications including SARS-CoV-2 infection



UBI or Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation is a light treatment which is also known as Photoluminescence, Extracorporeal Photophoresis, Photo-oxidation or UVB Therapy.


Ultraviolet Blood Irradiation (UBI) therapy is a treatment which involves withdrawing a small amount of blood into a syringe and then briefly exposing that blood to selected frequencies of Ultraviolet Light and then re-infusing the blood back into the body. The blood is also treated with a very small amount of medicine to prevent it from clotting (heparin). This treatment is often performed as an add-on therapy to blood that has been mixed with ozone as part of a major autologous hemotherapy (MAH) ozone treatment. However, it can also be done as a single treatment without ozone.


UBI therapy is used clinically as both a specific (ie psoriasis,) and non-specific (chronic infections, chronic fatigue, auto-immune diseases, scleroderma, etc.) treatment. Certain forms of cancer, auto-immune diseases, infections and tissue transplant rejection have all been published as benefiting from Biophotoinc – UBI therapy. Although there are many positive medical studies and testimonies regarding this therapy, this therapy is still largely unknown in the United States and most US physicians would still consider this therapy to be “investigational” or “alternative”.



UBI works via several mechanisms.


1) Exposing blood to ultraviolet light creates an immune stimulating and germicidal effect when it is returned to the body. This generates a chain reaction that regulates the immune system making it more efficient to fight bacterial and viral infections in the body.


2) It may benefit autoimmune conditions by modulating an overactive immune system.



Some research studies have shown the following benefits of UBI Therapy:


  • Increases oxygen absorption into body tissues
  • Destruction of fungal, viral and bacterial growth
  • Enhances the immune system’s ability to fight infection
  • Improves circulation and decreases platelet aggregation
  • Improves circulation by dilating blood vessels
  • Improves the body’s ability to detoxify and inactivate or remove toxins
  • Increase in: arterial and venous oxygenation, blood pH, lymphocytes, electrical charge on the red blood cell, hemoglobin, white blood cell count, lymphocytes, phagocytosis ability
  • Reduction of cholesterol, creatinine levels, blood lactate, clot formation tendencies, blood viscosity, uric acid levels, fibrin levels, plasma viscosity, surface tension of the blood
  • Normalization or modulation of: immune status, glucose tolerance, and fibrinolysis.


Rare but possible complications are the same as those from any injection such as bleeding and infection.

Other possible complications include minor bruising at the injection site, potential minor bleeding from the heparin, mild temporary Herxeimer or “healing reactions” (low grade fever, minor muscle aches or joint aches), and possible prescription drug – UBI interaction, most commonly occurring with sulfa drugs, tetracyclines, and phenothiazines

UBI has faced criticism from medical experts, who say the procedure lacks clinical trials and studies that show its effectiveness.


Dr. Michael Hamblin, a former principal investigator at the Wellman Center for Photomedicine at Massachusetts General Hospital and associate professor of dermatology at Harvard Medical School, wrote in a 2018 paper that UBI has become known as the "cure that time forgot."


It was used broadly in the 1940s and 1950s as a treatment for many diseases, although its use diminished with the rise of antibiotics, Hamblin wrote. In the years since, UBI has been studied more in Russia and Eastern countries than in the U.S.


Hamblin wrote more study should be conducted on the treatment, as there is confusion regarding what is happening during the treatment and has led to controversy about its use


Dr. Edzard Ernst, professor emeritus at the University of Exeter and an authority on complementary medicine "Yes, there are quite a few papers on UBI and related methods," he said. "But most of them are in-vitro studies, while robust clinical trials are missing completely."


                            Photoluminescence Physician Reference List  (click to open) ALASKA Sandra C. Denton, M.D. (907) 563-6200; fax: (907) 561-4933 Alaska Alternative Medicine Center, 3201 C Street #602, Anchorage, AK 99503 Robert Jay Rowen, M.D. (907) 344-7775; fax: (907) 522-3114 615 E. 82nd Street, Suite 300, Anchorage, AK 99518 ARIZONA James Hutton, NMD. (928) 203-9013; fax: (928) 203-9016 3510 Red Cliffs Lane, Sedona, AZ 86336 [email protected] Gordon Josephs, M.D. (602) 998-9232; fax: (602) 998-1528 7315 E. Evans Road, Scottsdale, AZ 85260 CALIFORNIA Randy S. Baker, MD (831) 476-1886; fax: (831) 476-61981001 Hidden Valley Road, Soquel, CA 95073 Nolan T. Higa, M.D. (805 ) 347-0067; fax: (805 ) 922-2607 937 E. Main St, Suite 106, Santa Maria, CA 93454 Dr. Jacob Swilling (619) 424-9552; fax: (619) 424-7593 Genesis West, 1161 Bay Blvd., Suite A, Chula Vista, CA 91911 CANADA Gordon E. Potter, MD (604) 534-5804; fax: (604) 534-775821693 52nd Avenue, Langley, B.C. V2Y1L7 Dr Tawnya Ward, Dr Eric Chan (604) 275 0163 Pangaea Clinic of Naturopathic Medicine, 120-12011 Second Ave, Richmond BC, Canada V7E 3L6 COLORADO Thomas R. Lawrence, D.C. + Lauren E. Mitchell, D.O. (303) 333-3733; fax: (303) 333-1352 Biological Medical Center, Inc., 2222 East 18th Ave, Denver, CO 80206 Larry Wilson, N.M.D. (303) 761-8339; fax: (303) 761-1143; Natural Health Clinic, 3191 S. Broadway, Englewood, CO 80110 CONNECTICUT Dr. Robert M. Murphy (860) 482-4730; fax: (860) 482-9034 118 Migeon Avenue, Torrington, CT 06790 FLORIDA Martin Dayton, D.O. (305) 931-8484; fax: (305) 936-1849 18600 Collins Avenue, North Miami Beach, FL 33160 William Campbell Douglass,III, M.D., M.S. (888) 324-0888; fax: (407) 342-8222 The Douglass Center, 101 Timberlachen Circle #101, Lake Mary, FL 32746 Gary L. Pynckel, D.O. (941) 278-3377; fax: (941) 278-3702 3840 Colonial Blvd, Suite 1, Fort Myers, FL 33912 William N. Watson, M.D., PA (809) 623-3836 5536 Stewart St., Milton, FL 32570 IDAHO Patrick H. Ranch, D.C., M.D., N.M.D. (208) 777-8297 Naturopahtic Clinic, 810 N. Henry, #230, Post Falls, m 83858 Also clinics in British Columbia & Alberta, Canada ILLINOIS Ross A. Hauser, M.D. (708)848-7789; fax: (708) 848-7763 Caring Medical & Rehabilitation Services, 715 Lake Street, Suite 600, Oak Park, IL 60301 Jonathan Martinez D.O. (800) 981-9552; fax: (847) 255-7700 Pioneer Medical Associates, 3401 N. Kennicott Ave, Arlington Heights, IL 60004 INDIANA Dale Guyer, MD (317) 580-9355Advanced Medical Center, 836 E 86th Street, Indianapolis, IN 46240 JAPAN Koichi Inoue, M.D. 81-3-5770-7737; fax: 81-3-5411-7479Sanikoto-A1, 3-20-3, Kitame, Setagaya-Ku, Tokyo KANSAS Jerry E. Block, M.D., F.A.C.P. (316) 251-2400; fax: (316) 251-1619 1501 W. 4th Street, Coffeyville, KS 67337 MAINE Arthur B. Weisser, D.O. (207) 873-7721; fax: (207) 873-7724 184 Silver Street, Waterville, ME 04901 MARYLAND Clinical Technology Center, 14816 Physicians Lane, Suite 151, Rockville, MD 20850 (301) 294-2928; fax: (301) 294-3195 Carl Schleicher, Ph.D. (301) 587-8686; fax: (301) 587-8688 Foundation for Blood Irradiation, 1315 Apple Avenue, Silver Springs, MD 20910 MEXICO Dr. Amezcua 011-5266-301313; fax: 011-5266-301723 Genesis West, 256 Del Agua, Tijuana, BC 22880 Dr. Cesar Garcia, Chief of Staff 011-5266-801358; fax: 011-52-66-801831 Hospital Meridien, Lava #2971 Secc. Costa Hermosa, Playas de Tijuana, BC, CP22240 Mexico Frank J. Morales Jr., M.D. 011-5288-124842 Ave. Alvaro Obregon # 77, Col.Jardin C.P. 87330, H. Matamoros, Tamps. MEX Frank J. Morales Jr., M.D. (99) 23-33-33 Morales Clinic, Calle 57 No.500 entre 58y60, Merida, Yuc. MEX Mailing Address: 1424 W. Price Rd., Suite 450, Brownsville, TX 78520 Coahuila Con Benito Juarez 011-5298-370159 No.6 "A", Nuevo Progreso, Tamps. MEX MICHIGAN Vahagn Agbabian, D.O. (248) 334-2424; fax: (248) 334-2924 N.B.A. Building, 28 Saginaw, Street 1105, Pontiac, MI 48304 NEVADA David A. Edwards, MD, HMD (775) 828-4055; fax: (775) 828-42556490 South McCarran Blvd, Suite 24, Reno, NV, 89509 Robert D. Milne, M.D. (702) 385-1393; fax: (702) 385-4170 Milne Medical Center, 2110 Pinto Lane, Las Vegas, NV 89106 NEW HAMPSHIRE Dr. Irma Barkan fax: (603) 472-5962 15 Constitution Drive, Bedford, NH 03110, (603)472-5007 NEW JERSEY Ivan Krohn, M.D. (866) 987-5433; fax: (732) 506-6039 Longevity Medical, 540 Bordentown Avenue, Suite 4200, South Amboy, NJ Stuart L. Weg, M.D. (201) 447-5558; fax: (201) 447-9011 Pain Relief & Treatment Specialists, 1250 E. Ridgewood Ave, Ridgewood, NJ 07450 NEW YORK Steven Bock, M.D. + Kenneth Bock, M.D. (914) 876-7082; fax: (914) 876-4615 Rhinebeck Health Center, 108 Montgomery Street, Rhinebeck, NY 12572 Center For Progressive Medicine, Pinnancle Place, Suite 210, 10 McKown Road, Albany, NY 12203 (518) 435-0082; fax: (518) 435-0086 Mitchell Kurk, M.D. (516) 239-5540; fax: (516) 371-2919 310 Broadway, Lawrence, NY 11559 Thomas K Szulc, M.D. (516) 931-1133; fax: (516) 931-1167 Long Island Pain Treatment Center, 720 Old Country Road, Plainview, NY 11803 NORTH CAROLINA Dennis W. Fera, MD (919) 732-2287; fax: (919) 732-3176Holistic Health & Medicine, 1000 Corporate Dr., Suite 209, Hillsborough (Chapel Hill), NC 27278 Bhaskar D. Power, M.D., FRCS (919) 535-1411; fax: (919) 537-5000 Genesis Health Center, 1201 East Littleton Road, Roanoke Rapids, NC 27870 OHIO Theodore J. Cole, M.A., D.O., N.M.D., F.A.A.I.M. (513) 563-4321; fax: (513) 563-3131 The Cole Center for Healing, 11974 Lebanon Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 OKLAHOMA Leon Anderson, D.O. (918) 299-5038; fax: (918) 299-5038 Anderson Clinic, P.O. Box 1032 - 121 S. Second St., Jenks, OK 74037 Charles H. Farr, M.D., Ph.D. (405) 634-7855; fax: (405) 634-7320 Genesis Medical Research Institute, 5419 5. Western Ave, Oklahoma City, OK 73109 Gordon P. Laird, D.O. (918) 762-3601; fax: (918) 762-2544 Alpha Health, 304 Boulder, Pawnee, OK 74058 Robert L. White, N.D., Ph.D., PA-C (405) 634-7855; fax: (405) 634-7320 Genesis Medical Research Institute, 5419 So. Western Ave, Oklahoma City, OK 73109 PENNSYLVANIA Andrew Lipton, DO (610) 667-4601; fax: (610) 667-6416822 Montgomery Ave., Suite 315, Narberth, PA 19072 Arthur L. Koch, D.O. (717) 455-4747; fax: (717) 455-6312 57 West Juniper Street, Hazieton, PA 18201 TAIWAN Kojak Lin, MD (886) 7-3485858; Fax: (886) 7-348688814 Min-Ren Road, Kaohsiung, Taiwan TEXAS Dr. Barry Beaty (817) 737-6464; fax: (817) 737-2858 4455 Camp Bowie Blvd, Suite 211, Fort Worth, TX 76107-3800 Charles M. Hawes, D/C + Antonio Acevdeo, D/C (817) 446-8416; fax: (817) 446-8413 Preventive Medicine Center, 6451 Brentwood Stair Rd, Suite 115, Ft. Worth, TX 76112 John. L. Sessions, D.O. (409) 423-2166; fax: (409) 423-5496 1609 5. Margaret, Kirbyville, TX 75956 WASHINGTON Cheryl M. Deroin, N.D. 3606 Main Street, Suite 202, Vancouver, WA 98663




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